General Information

Location: The Republic of Bulgaria is situated in the Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey.

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E

Total Area: 110,993 sq km

Land boundaries:

total: 1,808 km

Bulgarian seaborder countries: Greece - 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia – 148 km, Romania - 608 km, Serbia - 318 km, Turkey - 240 km

Coastline: 378 km

Climate: Winter temperatures vary between 0 and -7 degrees. Temepratures in the winter almost never drop under -15 degrees. during the spring the climate is continental. summers are hot. The summer temperatures are about 28 degrees. Autumns are mild and wonderful covering the leafs of the trees with different colours.
Relief: The country is situated on a relatively small area and the relief is quite  varied, altitudes from 0 to 2 925 m above sea level. The average altitude of the  country is 470 m. Almost 30 % of the territory is occupied by mountians. The highest Bulgarian mountain is Rila, with the highest peak on the Balkan Peninsula - Musala - 2925 m.

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

Geography - note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

Population: 7,707,495 (July 2001 est.)

Ethnic groups: Bulgarian 83%, Turk 8.5%, Roma (Gipsy) 2.6%, Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Gagauz – 5.9% (1998)

Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 83.5%, Muslim 13%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Jewish 0.8%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 1% (1998)

Languages: Main – Bulgarian. Turkish, Gipsy spoken among the minorities.

Government type: emerging democracy

National capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 28 districts - Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Haskovo, Kardjali, Kiustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardjik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofia, Sofia-Grad, Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, Yambol

Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day - 3 March

Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:

chief of state:
President - Rosen PLEVNELIEV.
Vice President – Margarita POPOVA.
head of government: 

Prime Minister - Plamen ORESHARSKI.

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman appointed for a seven-year term by the president; Constitutional Court, 12 justices appointed or elected for a nine-year term.



Political parties and leaders: (please, click the links for more information on each party) 

  • Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria (Tsvetan Tsvetanov) (GERB) 

  • Bulgarian Socialist Party  (Sergeri STANISHEV – chairman) (BSP) 

  • Movement for Rights and Freedom  (Ahmed DOGAN) (DPS)
  • Attack!  (Volen SIDEROV) (ATAKA)

  • Union of Democratic Forces  (Martin Dimitrov) (SDS)  

For additional information on the Bulgarian Parliament, click here.
For additional information on the Bulgarian Government, click here.