The Bulgarian Language


The Bulgarian language is the earliest written Slavonic language. It dates back to the creation of the old Bulgarian alphabet - Glagolitsa in 862 by the brothers Cyril and Methodius which was gradually replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet /Kirilitsa/ over the following centuries.

The most typical characteristics of the Bulgarian language are elimination of noun declension, suffixed definite article, lack of a verb infinitive and complicated verb system - there are various verb forms to express nonwitnessed, retold, and doubtful action. The words in Bulgarian are pronounced in the same way in which they are written. Problematic is the transcription of the Bulgarian names in Latin alphabet because the different phonetic codes in English, French and German.

Аа a as in army
Бб b as in bed
Вв v as in vehicle
Гг g as in get
Дд d as in dish
Ее e as in red
Жж zh as "s" in treasure
Зз z as in zoom
Ии i as in kit
Йй y as in yellow
Кк k as in kind
Лл l as in lot
Мм m as in mother
Нн n as in need
Оо o as in hot
Пп p as in peach
Рр r as in restaurant
Сс s as in stand
Тт t as in top
Уу u as in full
Фф f as in fast
Хх h as in hit
Цц ts as "zz" in pizza
Чч ch as in choice
Шш sh as in shame
Щщ sht as in crashed
Ъъ u as in nut
Ьь soft "o" as in yoke
Юю yu as in you
Яя ya as in yacht
The Bulgarian names consist of three parts - personal, father’s and family name. It is important to know that the suffixes of the women’s father or family names always change by adding „a” after the last consonant! So it's not Mr. & Mrs. Smith, but Mr. Petrov & Mrs. Petrova.



Some of the most common words:

0 nula
1 edno
2 dve
3 tri
4 chetiri
5 pet
6 shest
7 sedem
8 osem
9 devet
10 deset
11 edinaiset
12 dvanaiset
100 sto
Monday ponedelnik
Tuesday vtornik
Wednesday sriada
Thursday chetvartak
Friday petak
Saturday sabota
Sunday nedelia

Some useful phrases that you can use when there is nothing else to do, but speaking with the locals :)

Hello Zdrasti
Please Molia
Why? Zashto?
Where? Kade?
When? Koga?
Taxi Taxi
museum muzei
gallery galeria
cash mashine bankomat
bank banka
hotel hotel
emergency barza pomosht
police polizia
bus/tram stop spirka
food hrana
I need Triabva mi
I don't understand Ne razbiram
I don't know Ne znam
Excuse me Izvinete
Yes - No Da - Ne
How much does it cost? Kolko struva?
Thank you! Blagodaria!
Where can I buy? Kade moga da kupia?
Nice to meet you! Priatno mi e da se zapoznaem!